postgresql数据库-PostgreSQL命令语法大全

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可以使用help语句查看所有postgreSQL语句的语法。 按照以下步骤查看PostgreSQL中所有语句的语法。

  • 安装postgreSQL后,打开psql为:程序文件 -> PostgreSQL 9.2 -> SQL Shell(psql)
  • 使用以下语句查看特定语句的语法。 postgres-#/ help&

所有PostgreSQL语句

在这里,我们提供了所有postgreSQL语句及其语法的列表:

ABORT语句:

语法:

ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] 

ALTER AGGREGATE语句:

语法:

ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) RENAME TO new_name   ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER CONVERSION语句:

语法:

ALTER CONVERSION name RENAME TO new_name   ALTER CONVERSION name OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER DATABASE语句:

语法:

ALTER DATABASE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }   ALTER DATABASE name RESET parameter   ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name   ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER DOMAIN语句:

语法:

ALTER DOMAIN name { SET DEFAULT expression | DROP DEFAULT }   ALTER DOMAIN name { SET | DROP } NOT NULL   ALTER DOMAIN name ADD domain_constraint   ALTER DOMAIN name DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]   ALTER DOMAIN name OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER FUNCTION语句:

语法:

ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) RENAME TO new_name   ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER GROUP语句:

语法:

ALTER GROUP groupname ADD USER username [, ... ]   ALTER GROUP groupname DROP USER username [, ... ]   ALTER GROUP groupname RENAME TO new_name 

ALTER INDEX语句:

语法:

ALTER INDEX name OWNER TO new_owner   ALTER INDEX name SET TABLESPACE indexspace_name   ALTER INDEX name RENAME TO new_name 

ALTER LANGUAGE语句:

语法:

ALTER LANGUAGE name RENAME TO new_name 

ALTER OPERATOR语句:

语法:

ALTER OPERATOR name ( { lefttype | NONE } , { righttype | NONE } )   OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS语句:

语法:

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method RENAME TO new_name   ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER SCHEMA语句:

语法:

ALTER SCHEMA name RENAME TO new_name   ALTER SCHEMA name OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER SEQUENCE语句:

语法:

ALTER SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]   [ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]   [ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]   [ RESTART [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ] 

ALTER TABLE语句:

语法:

ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]   action [, ... ]   ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]   RENAME [ COLUMN ] column TO new_column   ALTER TABLE name   RENAME TO new_name 

ALTER TABLESPACE语句:

语法:

ALTER TABLESPACE name RENAME TO new_name   ALTER TABLESPACE name OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER TRIGGER语句:

语法:

ALTER TRIGGER name ON table RENAME TO new_name 

ALTER TYPE语句:

语法:

ALTER TYPE name OWNER TO new_owner 

ALTER USER语句:

语法:

ALTER USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]   ALTER USER name RENAME TO new_name   ALTER USER name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }   ALTER USER name RESET parameter 

ANALYSE语句:

语法:

ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ] 

BEGIN语句:

语法:

BEGIN [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] [ transaction_mode [, ...] ] 

CHECKPOINT语句:

语法:

CHECKPOINT 

CLOSE语句:

语法:

CLOSE name 

CLUSTER语句:

语法:

CLUSTER index_name ON table_name   CLUSTER table_name   CLUSTER 

COMMIT语句:

语法:

COMMIT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] 

COPY语句:

语法:

COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]   FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }   [ [ WITH ]   [ BINARY ]   [ OIDS ]   [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]   [ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]   [ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]   [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]   [ FORCE NOT NULL column [, ...] ]   COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]   TO { 'filename' | STDOUT }   [ [ WITH ]   [ BINARY ]   [ OIDS ]   [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]   [ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]   [ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]   [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]   [ FORCE QUOTE column [, ...] ] 

CREATE AGGREGATE语句:

语法:

CREATE AGGREGATE name (   BASETYPE = input_data_type,   SFUNC = sfunc,   STYPE = state_data_type   [ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]   [ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]   ) 

CREATE CAST语句:

语法:

CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)   WITH FUNCTION func_name (arg_types)   [ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]   CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)   WITHOUT FUNCTION   [ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ] 

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER语句:

语法:

CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER name   AFTER events ON   table_name constraint attributes   FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( args ) 

CREATE CONVERSION语句:

语法:

CREATE [DEFAULT] CONVERSION name   FOR source_encoding TO dest_encoding FROM func_name 

CREATE DATABASE语句:

语法:

CREATE DATABASE name   [ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] db_owner ]   [ TEMPLATE [=] template ]   [ ENCODING [=] encoding ]   [ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace ] ] 

CREATE DOMAIN语句:

语法:

CREATE DOMAIN name [AS] data_type   [ DEFAULT expression ]   [ constraint [ ... ] ] 

CREATE FUNCTION语句:

语法:

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION name ( [ [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] )   RETURNS ret_type   { LANGUAGE lang_name   | IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE   | CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT   | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER   | AS 'definition'   | AS 'obj_file', 'link_symbol'   } ...   [ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ] 

CREATE GROUP语句:

语法:

CREATE GROUP name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]   Where option can be:   SYSID gid   | USER username [, ...] 

CREATE INDEX语句:

语法:

CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX name ON table [ USING method ]   ( { column | ( expression ) } [ opclass ] [, ...] )   [ TABLESPACE tablespace ]   [ WHERE predicate ] 

CREATE LANGUAGE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name   HANDLER call_handler [ VALIDATOR val_function ] 

CREATE OPERATOR语句:

语法:

CREATE OPERATOR name (   PROCEDURE = func_name   [, LEFTARG = left_type ] [, RIGHTARG = right_type ]   [, COMMUTATOR = com_op ] [, NEGATOR = neg_op ]   [, RESTRICT = res_proc ] [, JOIN = join_proc ]   [, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]   [, SORT1 = left_sort_op ] [, SORT2 = right_sort_op ]   [, LTCMP = less_than_op ] [, GTCMP = greater_than_op ]   ) 

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS语句:

语法:

CREATE OPERATOR CLASS name [ DEFAULT ] FOR TYPE data_type   USING index_method AS   { OPERATOR strategy_number operator_name [ ( op_type, op_type ) ] [ RECHECK ]   | FUNCTION support_number func_name ( argument_type [, ...] )   | STORAGE storage_type   } [, ... ] 

CREATE RULE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] RULE name AS ON event   TO table [ WHERE condition ]   DO [ ALSO | INSTEAD ] { NOTHING | command | ( command ; command ... ) } 

CREATE SCHEMA语句:

语法:

CREATE SCHEMA schema_name   [ AUTHORIZATION username ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]   CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION username   [ schema_element [ ... ] ] 

CREATE SEQUENCE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] SEQUENCE name   [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]   [ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]   [ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]   [ START [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ] 

CREATE TABLE语句:

语法:

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name (   { column_name data_type [ DEFAULT default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]   | table_constraint   | LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } DEFAULTS ] } [, ... ]   )   [ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]   [ WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]   [ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]   [ TABLESPACE tablespace ] 

CREATE TABLE AS语句:

语法:

CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name   [ (column_name [, ...] ) ] [ [ WITH | WITHOUT ] OIDS ]   AS query 

CREATE TABLESPACE语句:

语法:

CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name [ OWNER username ] LOCATION 'directory' 

CRFEATE TRIGGER语句:

语法:

CREATE TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER } { event [ OR ... ] }   ON table [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]   EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( arguments ) 

CREATE TYPE语句:

语法:

CREATE TYPE name AS   ( attribute_name data_type [, ... ] )   CREATE TYPE name (   INPUT = input_function,   OUTPUT = output_function   [ , RECEIVE = receive_function ]   [ , SEND = send_function ]   [ , ANALYZE = analyze_function ]   [ , INTERNALLENGTH = { internal_length | VARIABLE } ]   [ , PASSEDBYVALUE ]   [ , ALIGNMENT = alignment ]   [ , STORAGE = storage ]   [ , DEFAULT = default ]   [ , ELEMENT = element ]   [ , DELIMITER = delimiter ]   ) 

CREATE USER语句:

语法:

CREATE USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ] 

CREATE VIEW语句:

语法:

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] AS query 

DEALLOCATE语句:

语法:

DEALLOCATE [ PREPARE ] plan_name 

DECLARE语句:

语法:

DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]   CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] FOR query   [ FOR { READ ONLY | UPDATE [ OF column [, ...] ] } ] 

DELETE语句:

语法:

DELETE FROM [ ONLY ] table [ WHERE condition ] 

DROP AGGREGATE语句:

语法:

DROP AGGREGATE name ( type ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP CAST语句:

语法:

DROP CAST (source_type AS target_type) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP CONVERSION语句:

语法:

DROP CONVERSION name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP DATABASE语句:

语法:

DROP DATABASE name 

DROP DOMAIN语句:

语法:

DROP DOMAIN name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP FUNCTION语句:

语法:

DROP FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP GROUP语句:

语法:

DROP GROUP name 

DROP INDEX语句:

语法:

DROP INDEX name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP LANGUAGE语句:

语法:

DROP [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP OPERATOR语句:

语法:

DROP OPERATOR name ( { left_type | NONE } , { right_type | NONE } )   [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP OPERATOR CLASS语句:

语法:

DROP OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP RULE语句:

语法:

DROP RULE name ON relation [CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP SCHEMA语句:

语法:

DROP SCHEMA name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP SEQUENCE语句:

语法:

DROP SEQUENCE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP TABLE语句:

语法:

DROP TABLE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP TABLESPACE语句:

语法:

DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name 

DROP TRIGGER语句:

语法:

DROP TRIGGER name ON table [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP TYPE语句:

语法:

DROP TYPE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

DROP USER语句:

语法:

DROP USER name 

DROP VIEW语句:

语法:

DROP VIEW name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ] 

END语句:

语法:

END [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] 

EXECUTE语句:

语法:

EXECUTE plan_name [ (parameter [, ...] ) ] 

EXPLAIN语句:

语法:

EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement 

FETCH语句:

语法:

FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name 

INSERT语句:

语法:

INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]   { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) | query } 

LISTEN语句:

语法:

LISTEN name 

LOAD语句:

语法:

LOAD 'filename' 

LOCK语句:

语法:

LOCK [ TABLE ] name [, ...] [ IN lock_mode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ] 

MOVE语句:

语法:

MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name 

NOTIFY语句:

语法:

NOTIFY name 

PREPARE语句:

语法:

PREPARE plan_name [ (data_type [, ...] ) ] AS statement 

REINDEX语句:

语法:

REINDEX { DATABASE | TABLE | INDEX } name [ FORCE ] 

RESET语句:

语法:

RESET name   RESET ALL 

ROLLBACK语句:

语法:

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] 

ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT语句:

语法:

ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] TO [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name 

SAVEPOINT语句:

语法:

SAVEPOINT savepoint_name 

SELECT语句:

语法:

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]   * | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]   [ FROM from_item [, ...] ]   [ WHERE condition ]   [ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]   [ HAVING condition [, ...] ]   [ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]   [ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]   [ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]   [ OFFSET start ]   [ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ] 

SELECT INTO语句:

语法:

SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]   * | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]   INTO [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] [ TABLE ] new_table   [ FROM from_item [, ...] ]   [ WHERE condition ]   [ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]   [ HAVING condition [, ...] ]   [ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]   [ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]   [ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]   [ OFFSET start ]   [ FOR UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ] 

SET语句:

语法:

SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] name { TO | = } { value | 'value' | DEFAULT }   SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { time_zone | LOCAL | DEFAULT } 

SET CONSTRAINTS语句:

语法:

SET CONSTRAINTS { ALL | name [, ...] } { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE } 

SET TRANSACTION语句:

语法:

SET TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]   SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...] 

SHOW语句:

语法:

SHOW name   SHOW ALL 

START TRANSACTION语句:

语法:

START TRANSACTION [ transaction_mode [, ...] ] 

TRUNCATE TABLE语句:

语法:

TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] name 

UPDATE语句:

语法:

UPDATE [ ONLY ] table SET column = { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...]   [ FROM from_list ]   [ WHERE condition ] 

  

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