ELK+redis搭建nginx日志分析平台-linux安全运维_跨零代码

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ELK简介

ELKStack即Elasticsearch + Logstash + Kibana。日志监控和分析在保障业务稳定运行时,起到了很重要的作用。比如对nginx日志的监控分析,nginx是有日志文件的,它的每个请求的状态等都有日志文件进行记录,所以可以通过读取日志文件来分析;redis的list结构正好可以作为队列使用,用来存储logstash传输的日志数据。然后elasticsearch就可以进行分析和查询了。

本文搭建的的是一个分布式的日志收集和分析系统。logstash有agent和indexer两个角色。对于agent角色,放在单独的web机器上面,然后这个agent不断地读取nginx的日志文件,每当它读到新的日志信息以后,就将日志传送到网络上的一台redis队列上。对于队列上的这些未处理的日志,有不同的几台logstash indexer进行接收和分析。分析之后存储到elasticsearch进行搜索分析。再由统一的kibana进行日志web界面的展示[3]。

目前我用两台机器做测试,hadoop-master安装nginx和logstash agent(tar源码包安装),hadoop-slave机器安装安装logstash agent、elasticsearch、redis、nginx。
同时分析两台机器的nginx日志,具体配置可参见说明文档。以下记录了ELK+redis来收集和分析日志的配置过程,参考了官方文档和前人的文章。

系统环境

主机环境

hadoop-master        192.168.186.128   #logstash index、nginx hadoop-slave        192.168.186.129   #安装logstash agent、elasticsearch、redis、nginx

系统信息

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# java -version   #Elasticsearch是java开发的,需要JDK环境,本机安装JDK 1.8      java version "1.8.0_20"      Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_20-b26)      Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.20-b23, mixed mode) [root@hadoop-slave ~]# cat /etc/issue      CentOS release 6.4 (Final)      Kernel /r on an /m

Redis安装

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# wget https://github.com/antirez/redis/archive/2.8.20.tar.gz [root@hadoop-slave ~]# tar -zxf 2.8.20 [root@hadoop-slave ~]# mv redis-2.8.20/ /usr/local/src/ [root@hadoop-slave src]# cd redis-2.8.20/ [root@hadoop-slave src]# make 

执行完后,会在当前目录中的src目录中生成相应的执行文件,如:redis-server redis-cli等;

我们在/usr/local/目录中创建redis位置目录和相应的数据存储目录、配置文件目录等

[root@hadoop-slave local]# mkdir /usr/local/redis/{conf,run,db} -pv [root@hadoop-slave local]# cd /usr/local/src/redis-2.8.20/ [root@hadoop-slave redis-2.8.20]# cp redis.conf /usr/local/redis/conf/ [root@hadoop-slave redis-2.8.20]# cd src/ [root@hadoop-slave src]# cp redis-benchmark redis-check-aof redis-check-dump redis-cli redis-server mkreleasehdr.sh /usr/local/redis/

到此Redis安装完成了。

下面来试着启动一下,并查看相应的端口是否已经启动

[root@hadoop-slave src]# /usr/local/redis/redis-server /usr/local/redis/conf/redis.conf   & #可以打入后台 [root@hadoop-slave redis]# netstat -antulp | grep 6379      tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:6379                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      72669/redis-server        tcp        0      0 :::6379                     :::*                        LISTEN      72669/redis-server

启动没问题了,ok!

Elasticserach安装

ElasticSearch默认的对外服务的HTTP端口是9200,节点间交互的TCP端口是9300,注意打开tcp端口。

Elasticsearch安装

官网下载最新版本的tar包
Search & Analyze in Real Time: Elasticsearch is a distributed, open source search and analytics engine, designed for horizontal scalability, reliability, and easy management.

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# wget https://download.elastic.co/elasticsearch/elasticsearch/elasticsearch-1.7.1.tar.gz [root@hadoop-slave ~]# mkdir /usr/local/elk [root@hadoop-slave ~]# tar zxf elasticsearch-1.7.1.tar.gz -C /usr/local/elk/ [root@hadoop-slave bin]# ln -s /usr/local/elk/elasticsearch-1.7.1/bin/elasticsearch /usr/bin [root@hadoop-slave bin]# elasticsearch start      [2015-08-17 20:49:21,566][INFO ][node                     ] [Eliminator] version[1.7.1], pid[5828], build[b88f43f/2015-07-29T09:54:16Z]      [2015-08-17 20:49:21,585][INFO ][node                     ] [Eliminator] initializing ...      [2015-08-17 20:49:21,870][INFO ][plugins                  ] [Eliminator] loaded [], sites []      [2015-08-17 20:49:22,101][INFO ][env                      ] [Eliminator] using [1] data paths, mounts [[/ (/dev/sda2)]], net usable_space [27.9gb], net total_space [37.1gb], types [ext4]      [2015-08-17 20:50:08,097][INFO ][node                     ] [Eliminator] initialized      [2015-08-17 20:50:08,099][INFO ][node                     ] [Eliminator] starting ...      [2015-08-17 20:50:08,593][INFO ][transport                ] [Eliminator] bound_address {inet[/0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:9300]}, publish_address {inet[/192.168.186.129:9300]}      [2015-08-17 20:50:08,764][INFO ][discovery                ] [Eliminator] elasticsearch/XbpOYtsYQbO-6kwawxd7nQ      [2015-08-17 20:50:12,648][INFO ][cluster.service          ] [Eliminator] new_master [Eliminator][XbpOYtsYQbO-6kwawxd7nQ][hadoop-slave][inet[/192.168.186.129:9300]], reason: zen-disco-join (elected_as_master)      [2015-08-17 20:50:12,683][INFO ][http                     ] [Eliminator] bound_address {inet[/0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:9200]}, publish_address {inet[/192.168.186.129:9200]}      [2015-08-17 20:50:12,683][INFO ][node                     ] [Eliminator] started      [2015-08-17 20:50:12,771][INFO ][gateway                  ] [Eliminator] recovered [0] indices into cluster_state #可以用` -d`参数打入后台运行`elasticsearch start -d`

测试

出现200返回码表示ok

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# elasticsearch start -d [root@hadoop-slave ~]# curl -X GET http://localhost:9200 {   "status" : 200,   "name" : "Wasp",   "cluster_name" : "elasticsearch",   "version" : {     "number" : "1.7.1",     "build_hash" : "b88f43fc40b0bcd7f173a1f9ee2e97816de80b19",     "build_timestamp" : "2015-07-29T09:54:16Z",     "build_snapshot" : false,     "lucene_version" : "4.10.4"   },   "tagline" : "You Know, for Search" }

Logstash安装

Logstash is a flexible, open source, data collection, enrichment, and transport pipeline designed to efficiently process a growing list of log, event, and unstructured data sources for distribution into a variety of outputs, including Elasticsearch.
Logstash默认的对外端口是9292,如果防火墙开启了要打开tcp端口。

源码安装

192.168.186.128主机源码安装,解压到/usr/local/目录下

[root@hadoop-master ~]# wget https://download.elastic.co/logstash/logstash/logstash-1.5.3.tar.gz [root@hadoop-master ~]# tar -zxf logstash-1.5.3.tar.gz -C /usr/local/ [root@hadoop-master logstash-1.5.3]# mkdir /usr/local/logstash-1.5.3/etc

yum安装

192.168.186.129采用yum安装

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# rpm --import https://packages.elasticsearch.org/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch  #download public key [root@hadoop-slave ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo       [logstash-1.5]      name=Logstash repository for 1.5.x packages      baseurl=http://packages.elasticsearch.org/logstash/1.5/centos      gpgcheck=1      gpgkey=http://packages.elasticsearch.org/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch      enabled=1 [root@hadoop-slave ~]# yum install logstash    #yum安装会安装在/opt目录下

测试

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# cd /opt/logstash/ [root@hadoop-slave logstash]# ls      bin  CHANGELOG.md  CONTRIBUTORS  Gemfile  Gemfile.jruby-1.9.lock  lib  LICENSE  NOTICE.TXT  vendor [root@hadoop-slave logstash]# bin/logstash -e 'input{stdin{}}output{stdout{codec=>rubydebug}}' 

然后你会发现终端在等待你的输入。没问题,敲入 Hello World,回车,然后看看会返回什么结果!

[root@hadoop-slave logstash]# vi logstash-simple.conf     #sleasticsearch的host是本机      input { stdin { } }      output {        elasticsearch { host => localhost }        stdout { codec => rubydebug }      } [root@hadoop-slave logstash]# ./bin/logstash -f logstash-simple.conf  #可以打入后台运行      ……      {             "message" => "",            "@version" => "1",          "@timestamp" => "2015-08-18T06:26:19.348Z",                "host" => "hadoop-slave"      }      ……

表明elasticsearch已经收到logstash传来的数据了,通信ok!

也可以通过下面的方式

[root@hadoop-slave etc]# curl 'http://192.168.186.129:9200/_search?pretty'      #出现一堆数据表示ok!

ogstash配置

logstash语法

摘录自说明文档
Logstash 社区通常习惯用 shipper,broker 和 indexer 来描述数据流中不同进程各自的角色。如下图:

ELK+redis搭建nginx日志分析平台

broker一般选择redis。不过我见过很多运用场景里都没有用 logstash 作为 shipper(也是agent的概念),或者说没有用 elasticsearch 作为数据存储也就是说也没有 indexer。所以,我们其实不需要这些概念。只需要学好怎么使用和配置 logstash 进程,然后把它运用到你的日志管理架构中最合适它的位置就够了。

设置nginx日志格式

两台机器都安装了nginx,所以都要修改nginx.conf,设置日志格式。

[root@hadoop-master ~]# cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/ [root@hadoop-master conf]# vi nginx.conf     #设置log_format,去掉注释     log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '                       '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '                       '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"'; access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;  #设置access日志,有访问时自动写入此文件 [root@hadoop-master conf]# nginx -s reload

hadoop-slave机器同上操作

开启logstash agent

logstash agent负责收集信息传送到redis队列上

[root@hadoop-master ~]# cd /usr/local/logstash-1.5.3/ [root@hadoop-master logstash-1.5.3]# mkdir etc [root@hadoop-master etc]# vi logstash_agent.conf  input {         file {                 type => "nginx access log"                 path => ["/usr/local/nginx/logs/host.access.log"]            } } output {         redis {                 host => "192.168.186.129" #redis server                 data_type => "list"                 key => "logstash:redis"         } } [root@hadoop-master etc]# nohup /usr/local/logstash-1.5.3/bin/logstash -f /usr/local/logstash-1.5.3/etc/logstash_agent.conf & #在另一台机器上的logstash_agent也同样配置

开启logstash indexer

[root@hadoop-slave conf]# cd /opt/logstash/ [root@hadoop-slave logstash]# cd etc/ [root@hadoop-slave etc]# vi logstash_indexer.conf  input {         redis {                 host => "192.168.186.129"                 data_type => "list"                 key => "logstash:redis"                 type => "redis-input"         } } filter {         grok {                 type => "nginx_access"                 match => [                         "message", "%{IPORHOST:http_host} %{IPORHOST:client_ip} /[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}/] /"(?:%{WORD:http_verb} %{NOTSPACE:http_request}(?: HTTP/%{NUMBER:http_version})?|%{DATA:raw_http_request})/" %{NUMBER:http_status_code} (?:%{NUMBER:bytes_read}|-) %{QS:referrer} %{QS:agent} %{NUMBER:time_duration:float} %{NUMBER:time_backend_response:float}",                         "message", "%{IPORHOST:http_host} %{IPORHOST:client_ip} /[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}/] /"(?:%{WORD:http_verb} %{NOTSPACE:http_request}(?: HTTP/%{NUMBER:http_version})?|%{DATA:raw_http_request})/" %{NUMBER:http_status_code} (?:%{NUMBER:bytes_read}|-) %{QS:referrer} %{QS:agent} %{NUMBER:time_duration:float}"                 ]         } } output {         elasticsearch {                 embedded => false                 protocol => "http"                 host => "localhost"                 port => "9200"         } } [root@hadoop-slave etc]# nohup /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -f /opt/logstash/etc/logstash_indexer.conf &

配置完成!

Kibana安装

Explore and Visualize Your Data: Kibana is an open source data visualization platform that allows you to interact with your data through stunning, powerful graphics that can be combined into custom dashboards that help you share insights from your data far and wide.

[root@hadoop-slave ~]# wget https://download.elastic.co/kibana/kibana/kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64.tar.gz [root@hadoop-slave elk]# tar -zxf kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64.tar.gz  [root@hadoop-slave elk]# mv kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64 /usr/local/elk [root@hadoop-slave bin]# pwd /usr/local/elk/kibana/bin [root@hadoop-slave bin]# ./kibana  &

打开http://192.168.186.129:5601/
如果需要远程访问,需要打开iptables的tcp的5601端口。

ELK+redis测试

如果ELK+redis都没启动,以下命令启动:

[root@hadoop-slave src]# /usr/local/redis/redis-server /usr/local/redis/conf/redis.conf  & #启动redis [root@hadoop-slave ~]# elasticsearch start -d  #启动elasticsearch [root@hadoop-master etc]# nohup /usr/local/logstash-1.5.3/bin/logstash -f /usr/local/logstash-1.5.3/etc/logstash_agent.conf & [root@hadoop-slave etc]# nohup /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -f /opt/logstash/etc/logstash_indexer.conf & [root@hadoop-slave etc]# nohup /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -f /opt/logstash/etc/logstash_agent.conf & [root@hadoop-slave bin]# ./kibana  & #启动kibana

打开http://192.168.186.129/http://192.168.186.128/

每刷新一次页面会产生一条访问记录,记录在host.access.log文件中。

[root@hadoop-master logs]# cat host.access.log       ……      192.168.186.1 - - [18/Aug/2015:22:59:00 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 0 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/44.0.2403.155 Safari/537.36" "-"      192.168.186.1 - - [18/Aug/2015:23:00:21 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 0 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/44.0.2403.155 Safari/537.36" "-"      192.168.186.1 - - [18/Aug/2015:23:06:38 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 0 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/44.0.2403.155 Safari/537.36" "-"      192.168.186.1 - - [18/Aug/2015:23:15:52 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 0 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/44.0.2403.155 Safari/537.36" "-"      192.168.186.1 - - [18/Aug/2015:23:16:52 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 304 0 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/44.0.2403.155 Safari/537.36" "-" [root@hadoop-master logs]#

打开kibana页面即可显示两台机器nginx的访问日志信息,显示时间是由于虚拟机的时区和物理机时区不一致,不影响。

此时访问出现如下界面

ELK+redis搭建nginx日志分析平台


//下面这个css和插件后台设置的主题有关系,如果需要换样式,则需要修改以下CSS名称

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