数据库教程-CouchDB cURL

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与CouchDB通信有两种方式:

  • CouchDB cURL
  • CouchDB Fauxton

CouchDB cURL实用程序用于与CouchDB数据库通信。 此工具用于通过使用支持的协议(HTTP,HTTPS,FTP,FTPS,TFTP,DICT,TELNET,LDAP或FILE)将数据从服务器传输到服务器。 该命令设计为在没有用户交互的情况下工作。 cURL提供了一系列有用的技巧,如代理支持,用户身份验证,FTP上传,HTTP发布,SSL(http:)连接,Cookie,文件传输简历等。

cURL实用程序可用于UNIX,Linux,Mac OS X和Windows等操作系统。 它是一个命令行实用工具,可以直接从命令行中访问HTTP协议。

使用cURL实用程序

可以使用cURL实用程序访问任何网站,使用curl命令后跟一个网站地址。

例如:

curl http://www.yiibai.com/ 

cURL实用程序选项

cURL实用程序提供了各种选项,可以在cURL实用程序帮助中查看它们。

以下代码显示了cURL帮助的一些部分。

$ curl --help 

执行结果如下 –

yiibai@ubuntu:~$ curl ?help curl: (3) <url> malformed yiibai@ubuntu:~$ curl --help Usage: curl [options...] <url> Options: (H) means HTTP/HTTPS only, (F) means FTP only      --anyauth       Pick "any" authentication method (H)  -a, --append        Append to target file when uploading (F/SFTP)      --basic         Use HTTP Basic Authentication (H)      --cacert FILE   CA certificate to verify peer against (SSL)      --capath DIR    CA directory to verify peer against (SSL)  -E, --cert CERT[:PASSWD] Client certificate file and password (SSL)      --cert-type TYPE Certificate file type (DER/PEM/ENG) (SSL)      --ciphers LIST  SSL ciphers to use (SSL)      --compressed    Request compressed response (using deflate or gzip)  -K, --config FILE   Specify which config file to read      --connect-timeout SECONDS  Maximum time allowed for connection  -C, --continue-at OFFSET  Resumed transfer offset  -b, --cookie STRING/FILE  String or file to read cookies from (H)  -c, --cookie-jar FILE  Write cookies to this file after operation (H)      --create-dirs   Create necessary local directory hierarchy      --crlf          Convert LF to CRLF in upload      --crlfile FILE  Get a CRL list in PEM format from the given file  -d, --data DATA     HTTP POST data (H)      --data-ascii DATA  HTTP POST ASCII data (H)      --data-binary DATA  HTTP POST binary data (H)      --data-urlencode DATA  HTTP POST data url encoded (H)      --delegation STRING GSS-API delegation permission      --digest        Use HTTP Digest Authentication (H)      --disable-eprt  Inhibit using EPRT or LPRT (F)      --disable-epsv  Inhibit using EPSV (F)      --dns-servers    DNS server addrs to use: 1.1.1.1;2.2.2.2      --dns-interface  Interface to use for DNS requests      --dns-ipv4-addr  IPv4 address to use for DNS requests, dot notation      --dns-ipv6-addr  IPv6 address to use for DNS requests, dot notation  -D, --dump-header FILE  Write the headers to this file      --egd-file FILE  EGD socket path for random data (SSL)      --engine ENGINE  Crypto engine (SSL). "--engine list" for list  -f, --fail          Fail silently (no output at all) on HTTP errors (H)  -F, --form CONTENT  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)      --form-string STRING  Specify HTTP multipart POST data (H)      --ftp-account DATA  Account data string (F)      --ftp-alternative-to-user COMMAND  String to replace "USER [name]" (F)      --ftp-create-dirs  Create the remote dirs if not present (F)      --ftp-method [MULTICWD/NOCWD/SINGLECWD] Control CWD usage (F)      --ftp-pasv      Use PASV/EPSV instead of PORT (F)  -P, --ftp-port ADR  Use PORT with given address instead of PASV (F)      --ftp-skip-pasv-ip Skip the IP address for PASV (F)      --ftp-pret      Send PRET before PASV (for drftpd) (F)      --ftp-ssl-ccc   Send CCC after authenticating (F)      --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode ACTIVE/PASSIVE  Set CCC mode (F)      --ftp-ssl-control Require SSL/TLS for ftp login, clear for transfer (F)  -G, --get           Send the -d data with a HTTP GET (H)  -g, --globoff       Disable URL sequences and ranges using {} and []  -H, --header LINE   Custom header to pass to server (H)  -I, --head          Show document info only  -h, --help          This help text      --hostpubmd5 MD5  Hex encoded MD5 string of the host public key. (SSH)  -0, --http1.0       Use HTTP 1.0 (H)      --http1.1       Use HTTP 1.1 (H)      --http2.0       Use HTTP 2.0 (H)      --ignore-content-length  Ignore the HTTP Content-Length header  -i, --include       Include protocol headers in the output (H/F)  -k, --insecure      Allow connections to SSL sites without certs (H)      --interface INTERFACE  Specify network interface/address to use  -4, --ipv4          Resolve name to IPv4 address  -6, --ipv6          Resolve name to IPv6 address  -j, --junk-session-cookies Ignore session cookies read from file (H)      --keepalive-time SECONDS  Interval between keepalive probes      --key KEY       Private key file name (SSL/SSH)      --key-type TYPE Private key file type (DER/PEM/ENG) (SSL)      --krb LEVEL     Enable Kerberos with specified security level (F)      --libcurl FILE  Dump libcurl equivalent code of this command line      --limit-rate RATE  Limit transfer speed to this rate  -l, --list-only     List only mode (F/POP3)      --local-port RANGE  Force use of these local port numbers  -L, --location      Follow redirects (H)      --location-trusted like --location and send auth to other hosts (H)  -M, --manual        Display the full manual      --mail-from FROM  Mail from this address (SMTP)      --mail-rcpt TO  Mail to this/these addresses (SMTP)      --mail-auth AUTH  Originator address of the original email (SMTP)      --max-filesize BYTES  Maximum file size to download (H/F)      --max-redirs NUM  Maximum number of redirects allowed (H)  -m, --max-time SECONDS  Maximum time allowed for the transfer      --metalink      Process given URLs as metalink XML file      --negotiate     Use HTTP Negotiate Authentication (H)  -n, --netrc         Must read .netrc for user name and password      --netrc-optional Use either .netrc or URL; overrides -n      --netrc-file FILE  Set up the netrc filename to use  -N, --no-buffer     Disable buffering of the output stream      --no-keepalive  Disable keepalive use on the connection      --no-sessionid  Disable SSL session-ID reusing (SSL)      --noproxy       List of hosts which do not use proxy      --ntlm          Use HTTP NTLM authentication (H)      --oauth2-bearer TOKEN  OAuth 2 Bearer Token (IMAP, POP3, SMTP)  -o, --output FILE   Write output to <file> instead of stdout      --pass PASS     Pass phrase for the private key (SSL/SSH)      --post301       Do not switch to GET after following a 301 redirect (H)      --post302       Do not switch to GET after following a 302 redirect (H)      --post303       Do not switch to GET after following a 303 redirect (H)  -#, --progress-bar  Display transfer progress as a progress bar      --proto PROTOCOLS  Enable/disable specified protocols      --proto-redir PROTOCOLS  Enable/disable specified protocols on redirect  -x, --proxy [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT] Use proxy on given port      --proxy-anyauth Pick "any" proxy authentication method (H)      --proxy-basic   Use Basic authentication on the proxy (H)      --proxy-digest  Use Digest authentication on the proxy (H)      --proxy-negotiate Use Negotiate authentication on the proxy (H)      --proxy-ntlm    Use NTLM authentication on the proxy (H)  -U, --proxy-user USER[:PASSWORD]  Proxy user and password      --proxy1.0 HOST[:PORT]  Use HTTP/1.0 proxy on given port  -p, --proxytunnel   Operate through a HTTP proxy tunnel (using CONNECT)      --pubkey KEY    Public key file name (SSH)  -Q, --quote CMD     Send command(s) to server before transfer (F/SFTP)      --random-file FILE  File for reading random data from (SSL)  -r, --range RANGE   Retrieve only the bytes within a range      --raw           Do HTTP "raw", without any transfer decoding (H)  -e, --referer       Referer URL (H)  -J, --remote-header-name Use the header-provided filename (H)  -O, --remote-name   Write output to a file named as the remote file      --remote-name-all Use the remote file name for all URLs  -R, --remote-time   Set the remote file's time on the local output  -X, --request COMMAND  Specify request command to use      --resolve HOST:PORT:ADDRESS  Force resolve of HOST:PORT to ADDRESS      --retry NUM   Retry request NUM times if transient problems occur      --retry-delay SECONDS When retrying, wait this many seconds between each      --retry-max-time SECONDS  Retry only within this period      --sasl-ir       Enable initial response in SASL authentication  -S, --show-error    Show error. With -s, make curl show errors when they occur  -s, --silent        Silent mode. Don't output anything      --socks4 HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS4 proxy on given host + port      --socks4a HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS4a proxy on given host + port      --socks5 HOST[:PORT]  SOCKS5 proxy on given host + port      --socks5-hostname HOST[:PORT] SOCKS5 proxy, pass host name to proxy      --socks5-gssapi-service NAME  SOCKS5 proxy service name for gssapi      --socks5-gssapi-nec  Compatibility with NEC SOCKS5 server  -Y, --speed-limit RATE  Stop transfers below speed-limit for 'speed-time' secs  -y, --speed-time SECONDS  Time for trig speed-limit abort. Defaults to 30      --ssl           Try SSL/TLS (FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP)      --ssl-reqd      Require SSL/TLS (FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP)  -2, --sslv2         Use SSLv2 (SSL)  -3, --sslv3         Use SSLv3 (SSL)      --ssl-allow-beast Allow security flaw to improve interop (SSL)      --stderr FILE   Where to redirect stderr. - means stdout      --tcp-nodelay   Use the TCP_NODELAY option  -t, --telnet-option OPT=VAL  Set telnet option      --tftp-blksize VALUE  Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512)  -z, --time-cond TIME  Transfer based on a time condition  -1, --tlsv1         Use TLSv1 (SSL)      --trace FILE    Write a debug trace to the given file      --trace-ascii FILE  Like --trace but without the hex output      --trace-time    Add time stamps to trace/verbose output      --tr-encoding   Request compressed transfer encoding (H)  -T, --upload-file FILE  Transfer FILE to destination      --url URL       URL to work with  -B, --use-ascii     Use ASCII/text transfer  -u, --user USER[:PASSWORD][;OPTIONS]  Server user, password and login options      --tlsuser USER  TLS username      --tlspassword STRING TLS password      --tlsauthtype STRING  TLS authentication type (default SRP)  -A, --user-agent STRING  User-Agent to send to server (H)  -v, --verbose       Make the operation more talkative  -V, --version       Show version number and quit  -w, --write-out FORMAT  What to output after completion      --xattr        Store metadata in extended file attributes  -q                 If used as the first parameter disables .curlrc yiibai@ubuntu:~$ 

CouchDB默认主页

可以通过两种方式访问CouchDB的主页:

  • 在浏览器中打开url。
  • 通过命令提示符访问url。

通过发送GET请求访问CouchDB的主页:首先确保已经在Linux环境中安装了CouchDB并且正在运行成功,使用以下语法将获取请求发送到CouchDB实例。

在命令行下访问CouchDB的主页如下 –

yiibai@ubuntu:~$ curl http://127.0.0.1:5984 {"couchdb":"Welcome","uuid":"22d9e91e925fecdb5a3698e26a7f6815","version":"1.6.1","vendor":{"name":"Ubuntu","version":"14.04"}} yiibai@ubuntu:~$ 

  

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